BIGtheme.net http://bigtheme.net/ecommerce/opencart OpenCart Templates
Home / Alphabet

Alphabet

The Khinaliq alphabet

The present Khinaliq alphabet consists of 39 consonants and 9 vowels, i.e. 48 letters. It is based on the Azerbaijani pronunciation of these letters, however, Khinaliq language has by far more consonant phonemes than Azerbaijani. Therefore, the alphabet makes use of two kinds of diacritics: dot and circumflex. Dot on top of a letter is used for ejective consonants and the pharyngal voiced friccative (both sound types being denoted as “partlayan xirtdək” in Azerbaijani linguistic terminology); circumflex on top of a letter is used to represent the other phonemes that are similar but not equal to Azerbaijani phonemes, namely unaspirated consonants, certain diphtongs, the uvular voiced fricative and the pharyngal unvoiced fricative.

The following tables give an overview of the Khinaliq phonemes and their representation by letters:

  1. Vowels

Front vowels

Back vowels

Unrounded

Rounded

Unrounded

Rounded

Upper

i

ü

ı

u

Middle

e

ö

o

Lower

ə

a

Long vowels are represented by a double letter.

  1. Consonants

Place of articulation

Method of articulation

Plosive

Fricative

Affricate

Sonant

Labial

unvoiced

aspirated

p

f

unaspirated

ejective

voiced

b

v

m

Dental

unvoiced

aspirated

t

s

ŝ

unaspirated

ejective

ż

voiced

d

z

l, n, r

Alveodental

unvoiced

aspirated

ş

ç

unaspirated

ĉ

ejective

ċ

voiced

j

Palatal

semi-vowel

y

Velar

unvoiced

aspirated

k

unaspirated

ejective

voiced

g

ĝ

Uvular

unvoiced

aspirated

x

unaspirated

q

ejective

voiced

ĝ

Pharyngal

unvoiced

ĥ

voiced

Laryngal

unvoiced

h

Long consonants are represented by a double letter.

This alphabet can be written on a computer keyboard by means of specially designed keyboards, e.g. using the software “Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator”. All letters adhere to the Unicode system and can thus be used in all programs and applications that are compatible with Unicode (Microsoft Office, Internet Browsers, Facebook, etc.).  The following table shows the codification of the Xinaliq letters in the Unicode system:

Capital Letter

Unicode

Small Letter

Unicode

A

0041

a

0061

B

0042

b

0062

C

0043

c

0063

Ç

00c7

ç

00e7

Ĉ

0108

ĉ

0109

Ċ

010a

ċ

010b

D

0044

d

0064

E

0045

e

0065

Ə

018f

ə

0259

F

0046

f

0066

G

0047

g

0067

Ğ

011e

ğ

011f

Ĝ

011c

ĝ

011d

H

0048

h

0068

Ĥ

0124

ĥ

0125

1e22

1e23

X

0058

x

0078

0058 + 0302

0078 + 0302

I

0049

ı

0131

İ

0130

i

0069

J

004a

j

006a

K

004b

k

006b

004b + 0302

006b + 0302

004b + 0307

006b + 0307

Q

0051

q

0071

0051 + 0302

0071 + 0302

0051 + 0307

0071 + 0307

L

004c

l

006c

M

004d

m

006d

N

004e

n

006e

O

004f

o

006f

Ö

00d6

ö

00f6

P

0050

p

0070

0050 + 0302

0070 + 0302

1e56

1e57

R

0052

r

0072

S

0053

s

0073

Ŝ

015c

ŝ

015d

Ş

015e

ş

015f

T

0054

t

0074

0054 + 0302

0074 + 0302

1e6a

1e6b

U

0055

u

0075

Ü

00dc

ü

00fc

V

0056

v

0076

Y

0059

y

0079

Z

005a

z

007a

1e90

1e91

Ż

017b

ż

017c

History of the alphabet developement

The first Khinaliq alphabet was created about 20 years ago on the basis of the cyrillic alphabet. This alphabet has never been officially acknowledged by the Ministry of Education, but it was used for literature writing and language education at school.

In 2007, a group of Russian linguists (Kodzasov et alii) in cooperation with Khinaliq school teachers developed the first version of a Latin based alphabet. This alphabet made use of some IPA symbols such as the apostrophe for ejective sounds (p’, t’, k’ etc.), and the symobl ʕ for the pharyngal fricative. Unaspirated consonants and diphtongs were expressed by the respective digraphs.

This alphabet was then used by the linguist of the Azerbaijani branch of SIL, “Ufuk-S”, who cooperated with several Khinaliq teachers to publish childrens’ books, calendars and other material.

Some Khinaliq community members, however, did not agree with this alphabet for several reasons. Most importantly, the large number of digraphs resulted in extremely long words; besides, long consonant sounds could not be orthographically distinguished from short unaspirated consonants.

In 2013, the researchers from Frankfurt University made a new alphabet proposal, based on the phonetic research of the Moscow researchers, however replacing all digraphs by single letters with diacritics. This alphabet has been used since then for the writing of several books in Khinaliq language, and can be considered as widely accepted within the community.

The following table compares the Cyrillic alphabet with the the one currently in use.

Cyrillic

alphabet

Current alphabet

Cyrillic

alphabet

Current

alphabet

Cyrillic

alphabet

Current

alphabet

А а

A a

Кк кк

K̂ k̂

У у

U u

Аь аь

Ə ə

Къ къ

Q q

Уь уь

Ü ü

Б б

B b

Кь кь

Q̇ q̇

Ф ф

F f

В в

V v

Кӏ кӏ

K̇ k̇

Х х

X x

Г г

G g

Л л

L l

Хъ хъ

Q̂ q̂

Гг гг

Ĝ ĝ

М м

M m

Хь хь

X̂ x̂

Гъ гъ

Ğ ğ

Н н

N n

Хӏ хӏ

Ĥ ĥ

Гь гь

H h

О о

O o

Ц ц

Ŝ ŝ

Гӏ гӏ

Ḣ ḣ

Оь оь

Ö ö

Цц цц

Ẑ ẑ

Д д

D d

П п

P p

Цӏ цӏ

Ż ż

Дж дж

C c

Пп пп

P̂ p̂

Ч ч

Ç ç

Е е

E e

Пӏ пӏ

Ṗ ṗ

Чч чч

Ĉ ĉ

Ж ж

J j

Р р

R r

Чӏ чӏ

Ċ ċ

З з

Z z

С с

S s

Ш ш

Ş ş

И и

İ i

Т т

T t

Ъ ъ

Ḣ ḣ

Й й

Y y

Тт тт

T̂ t̂

Ы ы

I ı

К к

K k

Тӏ тӏ

Ṫ ṫ

Э э

E e

For the alphabet version suggested by Kodzasov et alii, see http://www.philol.msu.ru/~languedoc/assets/texts/xin-abc.pdf